Przypadki Robinsona Cruzoe

Год написания книги
"Przypadki Robinsona Cruzoe. The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner. Książka w dwóch wersjach językowych: polskiej i angielskiej.  A dual Polish-English language edition.
Akcja rozpoczyna się w 1651 r. Książka opisuje dzieje Robinsona Crusoe, syna kupca w mieście Hull. Robinson nie chce wieść nudnego żywota jak jego ojciec, jako 17-latek ucieka z domu i płynie do Londynu. Ma pecha, gdyż pierwszy statek, którym płynie, rozbija się. Trafia na drugi okręt i tam uczy się sztuki żeglarskiej. Po pewnym czasie, chce wracać do domu, ale kapitan Smith namawia go, by popłynął z nim do Gwinei, a gdy tam dorobi się majątku, zostanie łaskawiej przyjęty przez ojca. Po śmierci kapitana Robinson pomaga wdowie po nim w prowadzeniu interesów. Jednak podczas kolejnej podróży statek zostaje napadnięty, a Robinson, wraz z innymi, wzięty do niewoli mauretańskiej. Po dwóch latach ucieka, wraz ze swym towarzyszem Ksurym i płynie do Brazylii, gdzie staje się plantatorem. Podczas wyprawy po niewolników 30 września 1659 statek się rozbija i Robinson jest jedynym ocalałym. Trafia na bezludną wyspę, gdzie, jak się okaże, spędzi następne 28 lat... (
Crusoe (the family name corrupted from the German name ""Kreutznaer"") sets sail from the Queen's Dock in Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents, who want him to pursue a career, possibly in law. After a tumultuous journey where his ship is wrecked in a storm, his lust for the sea remains so strong that he sets out to sea again. This journey, too, ends in disaster as the ship is taken over by Salé pirates (the Salé Rovers) and Crusoe is enslaved by a Moor. Two years later, he escapes in a boat with a boy named Xury; a Captain of a Portuguese ship off the west coast of Africa rescues him. The ship is en route to Brazil. With the captain's help, Crusoe procures a plantation. Years later, Crusoe joins an expedition to bring slaves from Africa but he is shipwrecked in a storm about forty miles out to sea on an island (which he calls the Island of Despair) near the mouth of the Orinoco river on 30 September 1659. (The date was left blank in the first edition. The years added up after 1651, or, his total of years reckoned backwards from 1686 yield 1658 so the 1659 is an error. The story claims that he swam ashore on his 26th birthday.) The details of Crusoe's island were probably based on the Caribbean island of Tobago, since that island lies a short distance north of the Venezuelan coast near the mouth of the Orinoco river, in sight of Trinidad. He observes the latitude as 9 degrees and 22 minutes north. He sees penguins and seals on his island. (However, there are no seals and penguins living together in the Northern Hemisphere, only around the Galapagos Islands.) As for his arrival there, only he and three animals, the captain's dog and two cats, survive the shipwreck. Overcoming his despair, he fetches arms, tools, and other supplies from the ship before it breaks apart and sinks. He builds a fenced-in habitat near a cave which he excavates. By making marks in a wooden cross, he creates a calendar. By using tools salvaged from the ship, and some he makes himself from ""ironwood"", he hunts, grows barley and rice, dries grapes to make raisins, learns to make pottery, and raises goats. He also adopts a small parrot. He reads the Bible and becomes religious, thanking God for his fate in which nothing is missing but human society... ("

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